The biggest contribution to the product range comes from the Oil Products unit, which promotes differentiated fuels, lubricants and specialty products. The SML approach is to provide integrated solutions to serve the unique needs of customers doing work in under-developed, hostile and emerging markets or where there is little or no infrastructure. We self perform in our core competencies of making complete supply chain, construction, base operations, logistical and life support, power generation and IT and communications.

The Kerosene Family Jet A/Jet A-1

The Kerosene family are close cousins of the Diesels, including K-1 and K-2 Kerosene (obviously) and Jet-A.

Jet-A is a high-purity kerosene based fuel manufactured under a specific ASTM standard (D1655), with specific physical properties, and is used in jet turbine engines. Fuel not meeting the Jet-A specification is generally recycled in the production chain for other purposes (for example it may be used in blending kerosene for heating, or blended into highway diesel).

Jet-A is suited for turbine engines, but can also be burned in other compression-ignition piston engines like diesel can (there are a wide variety of aerodiesel engines available from several manufacturers).

Other grades of Kerosene are used for motor fuels, cooking fuel (“camp stove fuel” is typically kerosene) heating, lighting, etc. depending on their refining and purity.

Aviation Gasoline (Avgas)

Avgas actually comes in several grades, all manufactured to an ASTM standard (D910), with specific physical properties and specific permitted and required additives (such as Tetra-Ethyl Lead – TEL). The grade (octane rating) of aviation gasoline is identified by colored dyes added to the blend. The colors used in the US are:

  • Green: AvGas 100 (100/130 Octane)
  • Blue: AvGas 100LL (100/130 Octane) (This was formulated as a replacement for AvGas 100, with half the lead – hence 100LL – Low Lead)
  • Red: AvGas 80 (80/87 Octane) Generally 100LL is the most widely available aviation fuel because it works in the widest range of engines.

JP-8 is the military equivalent of Jet A-1 with the addition of corrosion inhibitor and anti-icing additives; it meets the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-T-83188D. It is the dominant military jet fuel grade for NATO airforces. The UK also have a specification for this grade namely DEF STAN 91-87 AVTUR/FSII (formerly DERD 2453). NATO Code F-34.

Materials and Manufacture

Aviation turbine fuel is a complex mixture predominantly composed of hydrocarbons and varies depending on crude source and manufacturing process. Consequently, it is impossible to define the exact composition of Jet A/A-1. This specification has therefore evolved primarily as a performance specification rather than a compositional specification. It is acknowledged that this largely relies on accumulated experience; therefore the specification limits aviation turbine fuels to those made from conventional sources or by specifically approved processes. Jet A/A-1 with Additives make JP8 (F-34). The two grades differ only in freezing point. Grade JET A has a maximum freezing point of -40°C and Grade JET A-1 has a maximum freezing point of -47°C. Kerosene-type aviation turbine fuels are distillates with a minimum flash point of 38°C. Aviation turbine fuel, except as otherwise specified in this specification, shall consist predominantly of refined hydrocarbons derived from conventional sources including crude oil, natural gas liquid condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. The use of jet fuel blends containing components from other sources is permitted only in accordance with the industry standards. Conventionally refined jet fuel contains trace levels of materials that are not hydrocarbons, including oxygenates, organosulfur, and nitrogenous compounds. Fuels used in certified engines and aircraft are ultimately approved by the certifying authority subsequent to formal submission of evidence to the authority as part of the type certification program for that aircraft and engine model.

Temperature Limitations

When temperatures are close to the fuel freezing point, fuel operability problems can be experienced. JET A, with a specification freezing point of -40°C, is not intended for use during extremely cold weather conditions or when the ambient temperature is close to, or below, -40°C. It also requires more restrictive use than JET A-1. The testing and evaluation of a product against Can/CGSB-3.23 standard may require the use of materials and/or equipment that could be hazardous.


The accuracy of ASTM D7039 for the sulphur content of jet fuel beyond 2822 mg/kg sulphur has not been validated. Users are cautioned to conduct their own validation when using this test method for jet fuel containing more than 2822 mg/kg sulphur.

Additive requirements

Only the additives listed below may be added to the fuel. Refer to the specified limiting values and test method for each property of Aviation Fuel. SGS on behalf of SML shall record and share the amount and names of each additive.

The amount of each additive used in the fuel shall be determined by the test method or by volume reconciliation. Procedures for volume reconciliation should include recording the volume of additive introduced to the fuel and the volume of fuel additized in appropriate units.

Static dissipator additive (SDA)

Static dissipator additive STADIS 4501 shall be added to the fuel to meet the electrical conductivity requirements specified in 5.12.1. The original concentration of the SDA shall not exceed 3 mg/L. When additive depletion is evident by a conductivity loss, further addition of the SDA is permitted as follows: If the original concentration of the SDA is not known, then an original addition of 3 mg/L is assumed and further addition of SDA shall not exceed 2 mg/L. The cumulative concentration of the SDA shall not exceed 5 mg/L.

Metal deactivator additive (MDA)

Only N,N’-disalicylidene – 1, 2-propane-diamine may be added as a metal deactivator at a concentration not exceeding 2.0 mg/L (not including mass of solvent) on the initial fuel manufactured at the refinery. Higher concentrations are permitted in circumstances where copper contamination is suspected to occur during distribution. Cumulative concentration of metal deactivator when re-treating the fuel shall not exceed 5.7 mg/L.

Fuel System Icing Inhibitor (FSII)

When specified (see 8.1.2) and agreed by the supplier and the purchaser, a fuel system icing inhibitor conforming to ASTM D4171 (Type III [DIEGME]) shall be added to the fuel.

Corrosion Inhibitors/lubricity Improvers (CI/LI)

When specified and agreed by the supplier and the purchaser, a corrosion inhibitor/lubricity improver qualified to U.S. Military Specification MIL-PRF-25017 and listed in the associated qualified product list (QPL) 25017 shall be added to the fuel. The concentration of the additive in the fuel shall be as specified in the QPL, and its introduction into the fuel shall be separate from the addition of other additives.